Alternate titles: 

1) Diverse engineering categories explained

2) Engineering disciplines you should know

3) Features of sectors in engineering

Engineering is among those subjects that consists of a wide variety of branches. Each discipline provides you with skills and knowledge that you need to understand and work in that specific field. Though traditionally there are four engineering disciplines namely chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical, there are many other categories of engineering which fall under these types. In addition, interdisciplinary engineering branches, which fall outside the purview of the four major categories, reflect modern developments in the study and practice of engineering.

Mechanical Engineering

As the name suggests, mechanical engineering deals with the development and application of machines. This branch of engineering advanced during the Industrial Revolution when the demand for diverse manufacturing processes increased rapidly. The study of mechanical engineering consists of advanced application of subjects like mathematics and physics. The goal of mechanical engineering is to produce effective and safe machines which can be used for the benefit of society.

Mechanical engineering is considered to be one of the largest engineering disciplines. This is because engineers are trained to produce a variety of equipment that can serve human needs across a range of industries. Here are some areas where you can find mechanical engineers working in today:

  • Aerospace engineering: Includes the production of space vehicles which like missiles and rockets which operate both inside and outside the atmosphere of the Earth. 
  • Marine engineering: Deals with the creation and maintenance of nautical equipment and sea vessels like ships, turbines, power generating systems, etc.
  • Nuclear engineering: Nuclear engineers are involved in working with nuclear energy to develop power plant systems, nuclear weapons or radiation systems.
  • Sound engineering: Sound engineering harnesses the principles of sound to create new sounds or improve existing ones.

Civil Engineering

Civil engineers are responsible for the construction of roadways, bridges and similar infrastructure which we use in our daily lives. By using surveys, maps, and data, civil engineers develop systems which improve the standards of our surroundings while protecting the environment. As one of the earliest engineering disciplines, here are some of the sub-branches of civil engineering:

  • Construction engineering: Involves the development of facilities for residential or commercial facilities.
  • Environmental engineering: Environmental engineers use science to safeguard the environment. This is a vast domain where you can find engineers working in ecosystem preservation, building sanitary conditions, treating wastewater and other areas.
  • Hydraulic engineering: Hydraulic engineering concerns the construction of water storage and sewerage facilities. Examples include lakes, dams, canals, and so forth.
  • Railway engineering: As the name indicates, this field involves the construction of railways and systems which facilitate smooth functioning of railways.
  • Transportation engineering: Includes enhancement and organization of systems of transportation. Engineers are involved in researching technologies and developing systems upon predictions of the society’s future needs.

Chemical Engineering

This engineering field is relatively more recent. It involves the harnessing of chemical processes to generate useful substances. It has a varied range of applications in industrial processes in addition to scientific research.

  • Ceramic engineering: Involves production of ceramic materials. These are further used in manufacturing advanced vehicles due to their thermal properties.
  • Packaging engineering: Packaging engineering is centered on the construction of packaging systems. Things like food, toys, and equipment are contained in such systems. 
  • Materials engineering: This is the process of transforming useful raw materials into advanced products. By identifying the properties of a certain product, a materials engineer characterizes it for a specific application.
  • Petroleum engineering: Petroleum engineers interact with geologists to determine the location of crude oil and how it can be extracted and harnessed to produce fuel. They also monitor the rate of depletion of oil in reservoirs.

Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering is the study and application of electric principles. It involves development and maintenance of electrical systems and processes. Electrical engineers work in areas that involve development of electricity such as scientific firms, electricity manufacturing organizations, etc. When first moving to your home, they can assist you in choosing cheap electricity plans that are compatible with your home’s electrical structure.

  • Computer engineering: The study of the interaction between the software and hardware in computers is called computer engineering. Engineers work in collaboration with other teams to ensure proper functioning of computers.
  • Control engineering: Aims to create balance in highly dynamic systems such as temperature differences and manufacturing processes.
  • Electronics engineering: Electronic engineers work to develop efficient electronic systems for clients. A large portion of their work involves measuring practicality of electrical equipment and developing prototypes for their clients.
  • Power engineering: This branch of electrical engineering produces large scale systems and applications for the production and transmission of electricity.

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